Martyrdom of Sahibzadas
Shaheedi Diwas Chhote Sahibzade: The martyrdom of the four sons of Guru Gobind Singh Ji is one of the most tragic and heartbreaking events in the history of the world. On the one hand, this incident paints a disgusting picture of human brutality, on the other hand, it reveals the peak of fighting spirit within the Sahibzada and the spirit of Sikh indoctrination. Gurudev’s two eldest sons, Baba Ajit Singh and Baba Jujhar Singh were killed in the battle of Chamkaur, and two younger sons, Baba Zoravar Singh and Baba Fateh Singh were killed on the orders of Suba Sirhind. Famous Hindi Language Author Maithili Sharan Gupta writes about the greatness of this martyrdom incident:
ਜਿਸ ਕੁਲ ਜਾਤੀ ਦੇਸ ਕੇ ਬੱਚੇ ਦੇ ਸਕਤੇ ਹੈਂ ਯੌਂ ਬਲੀਦਾਨ।
ਉਸ ਕਾ ਵਰਤਮਾਨ ਕੁਛ ਭੀ ਹੋ ਭਵਿਸ਼ਯ ਹੈ ਮਹਾਂ ਮਹਾਨ।
जिस कुल जाति देश के बच्चे दे सकते हैं यों बलिदान,
उस का वर्तमान कुछ भी हो भविष्य है महा-महान।
Siege of Anandpur Sahib
Anandpur Sahib was besieged by the armies of the Mughals and the hill chiefs in 1704 CE. As the siege became longer, the enemy made an agreement with the Guru Gobind Singh. The condition of the agreement was that once Guru Ji left Anandpur Sahib he would be allowed to go unhindered. Written oaths in this regard were also sent to the Guru. It is also mentioned in the Zafarnama written by Guru Ji to King Aurangzeb from Dina Kangar that if you want to see the written oaths of Quran then I can send it to you also:
ਤੁਰਾ ਗਰ ਬਬਾਯਦ ਕਉਲਿ ਕੁਰਾਂ।
ਬਨਿਜ਼ਦੇ ਸ਼ੁਮਾ ਰਾ ਰਸਾਨਮ ਹਮਾਂ।
When the Guru evacuated the fort, the enemy broke all oaths and started pursuing him. It was a dance of secular state power. Dishonesty, breach of promise, goodness, and cruelty were disgusting. The famous Islamic poet Alama Iqbal writes of such a situation:
ਜਲਾਲ-ਏ-ਪਾਤਸ਼ਾਹੀ ਹੋ ਕਿ ਜਮਹੂਰੀ ਤਮਾਸ਼ਾ ਹੋ,
ਜ਼ੁਦਾ ਹੋ ਦੀਂ ਸਿਆਸਤ ਸੇ ਤੋ ਰਹਿ ਜਾਤੀ ਹੈ ਚੰਗੇਜ਼ੀ।
As they approached the river Sarsa, a fierce battle ensued during which the Guru’s two younger sons and Mata Gujri separated from the caravan. The floodwaters in the Sarsa River and the onslaught of the enemy made it seem as if the two had joined hands in this heinous act.
Although Bhai Jivan Singh aka Jaita Singh Ji and Bhai Uday Singh Ji, along with hundreds of other Singhs, were killed in the battle, the enemy’s teeth were soured. The place is now adorned with Gurdwara Parivar Vichora Sahib which has preserved the memory of this tragic event of history when Mata Gujri Ji, Baba Zorawar Singh Ji, and Baba Fateh Singh Ji separated from Guru Sahib’s caravan.
Gangu – The Sinner
Mata Gujri Ji and the two younger sons met with Gangu, the cook of the Guru’s house on the way. He took them to his home in the village of Saherhi, near Morinda. Going home, Gangu’s mind became dishonest. He informed the Morinda police station and had the children and mother arrested. The Morinda police officer handed over the mother and children to Sirhind province. This kind of betrayal by a trusted person only makes the tragedy deeper and more painful.
During these cold nights of December, they were kept in the cold tower of Sirhind Fort. Hardly anyone in the history of the world has had to pass such a big and difficult test. Despite the fear and harshness of the state, Bhai Moti Ram Mehra risked his life to serve these fearless and fearless warriors with milk and water. As a result, Bhai Moti Ram Mehra and his family were later tortured to death in Kohlu by royal order.
The next day the children were produced before a court in Sirhind. Attempts were made in the court to lure and intimidate the children to accept Din-e-Mohammad. They also lied that your father has been killed, where will you go now? The children boldly refused to renounce their religion in the province of Sirhind.
Mohammad Sher Khan’s Haa Da Naara
Wazir Khan asked the Qazi for his opinion on the punishment to be meted out to these children. The Qazi said that punishment of children is not allowed in Islam. Wazir Khan also wanted to avoid the stigma of killing children to some extent. He now told Nawab Malerkotla that he could avenge his brother by punishing these children as he wished. Nawab Malerkotla Mohammad Sher Khan further said that my brother was killed in the war, I do not want any revenge on these newly sprouted flowers. In the words of ‘Allah Yar Khan Jogi’:
ਬਦਲਾ ਹੀ ਲੇਨਾ ਹੋਗਾ ਤੋ ਲੇਂਗੇ ਬਾਪ ਸੇ।
ਮਹਫ਼ੂਜ਼ ਰੱਖੇ ਹਮ ਕੋ ਖ਼ੁਦਾ ਐਸੇ ਪਾਪ ਸੇ।
बदल ही लेना होगा तो लेंगे बाप से,
महफ़ूज़ रखे हमको खुदा ऐसे पाप से।
Sucha Nand’s Provocation in Martyrdom of Sahibzade
Seeing the similar attitude of Qazi and Sher Khan, Wazir Khan’s mind began to soften, but Diwan Sucha Nand did not want the Sahibzada to be released. According to historical sources, he, like a devil, asked some questions to the princes, the answers to which would prove them rebellious. The princes replied bluntly:
He also persuaded Wazir Khan that it would not be wise to release these children. Because they are rebellious sons of a rebellious father and when they grow up they will become a threat to the Mughal Empire. After hearing Sucha Nand’s provocative arguments, Wazir Khan also made up his mind to punish the children.
He asked the Qazi again, This time the Qazi issued a fatwa against the wishes of the owners but contrary to the teachings of the Quran, the two children were to be buried in the walls. A wall was constructed around their standing bodies, filled with mortar. It is said that the wall had collapsed when it reached the shoulders. Unconscious bodies of flower-like children were on the ground.
Shaheedi of Chhote Sahibzade
Now the children have been ordered to be slaughtered. Saashal Beg and Baashal Beg, two executioners of Samana, separated the two children from their heads and torsos. This marvelous, unique, unparalleled, heart-wrenching, and historic martyrdom of the world turned the tide of India’s history and took the world by surprise. By offering their heads, the Sahibzadas raised the head of the Sikh community. The martyrdom of the Sahibzada was not only martyrdom but much more.
Attempts were made to seduce him mentally. How they endured all this torture cannot be estimated. By turning away from oppression, he not only upheld the dignity of the ten Sikh Gurus, the country, and the nation but elevated it and gave the Khalsa Panth an unparalleled and historic victory. Regarding this martyrdom, Alama Iqbal writes, cursing the Mughal dictators and the contractors of Din-e-Mohammadi as follows:
ਕਤਲ-ਏ-ਮਾਸੂਮ ਕਰਤੇ ਹੋ ਔਰ ਇਸੇ ਇਨਸਾਫ-ਏ ਖੁਦਾ ਕਹਤੇ ਹੋ।
ਕਿਆ ਇਸੀ ਕੋ ਦੀਨ-ਏ-ਮੁਹੰਮਦ ਕਹਤੇ ਹੋ।
कत्ल-ए-मासूम करते हो और इसे इंसाफ-ए-खुदा कहते हो?
क्या इसी को दीन-ए-मोहम्मद कहते हो?
Elderly Mata Gujri Ji was also martyred while enduring the torture at the cold tower. This was the first martyrdom of a woman for truth, rights, religion, human rights, and national pride in the history of India and the Sikh Nation.
Role of Diwan Todar Mal
Shaheedi Diwas of Chhote Sahibzade commemorates that they sacrificed their lives for the fulfillment of a much greater cause. The wonder of the time and the brutality of state power! The state of Sirhind made it a condition to provide a place for the cremation of these martyrs. According to which the important official of the province of Sirhind but the devotee of the Guru Sahib, Diwan Todar Mal collected money and kept the Gold Bricks standing to buy equal land in return for the cremation of the three martyrs. Gurdwara Sri Jyoti Saroop Sahib is adorned here today.
Undoubtedly, Diwan Todar Mal was a precious diamond of the Panth, an innumerable servant of the Guru’s house, beloved of God, guardian of truth and justice. Both Bhai Moti Ram Mehra and Diwan Todar Mall are the ‘Panth Ratan’ of the community. The role of Diwan Todar Mall, an important official of the Mughal government, and Ganga Ram, the cook of the Gurudwara, is understandable. Ganga Ram sacrificed religion and morality for the sake of wealth for the prosperity of life in the world. There is a great lesson to be learned from their character.