Zafarnama by Guru Gobind Singh
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|Book Title||Zafarnamah – The Epistle of Victory|
|Author||Guru Gobind Singh Ji|
Zafar Nama – The Epistle Of Victory Sent To Aurangzeb
It was now over three months since the Guru had arrived in Dina. Bhai Daya Singh had taken the first letter addressed to Aurangzeb from Ghulal on December 26, 1704 A.D. Now it was March 1705 A.D. These dates appear to be reasonably correct as it must have taken Bhai Daya Singh nearly two and a half months to travel from Ghulal to Aurangabad and back to Dina, a distance of nearly 900 miles, on foot or on horseback. By that time Bhai Daya Singh had reached Aurangabad in the Deccan and delivered the first letter to Aurangzeb. The emperor had also by then received a report from the Governor of Sirhind to the effect that Guru Gobind Singh and his family had been uprooted. Although there were basic differences between the Guru’s letter and the Governor’s report, the emperor felt that great. injustice had been done to the Guru, particularly when he was promised safe passage from Anandpur on solemn oaths of the Koran.
The emperor assured Bhai Daya Singh, with repeated oaths of the Koran, that he would do justice and that the Guru may be requested to come and meet him in the Deccan. Bhai Daya Singh shrewdly replied that, if that was the emperor’s intention, he might like to send a written reply to the Guru so that the verbal, as well as the written messages, might have a greater and immediate effect. The emperor agreed to do so and deputed two messengers to accompany Bhai Daya Singh to Dina to deliver his reply to the Guru.
The Guru made suitable arrangements for the messengers’ stay and heard from them as well as from Bhai Daya Singh separately about the sympathetic and remorseful mood in which the emperor had written the reply. How- ever, there were mixed feelings of magnanimity and seriousness on the Guru’s face as he thought the emperor was not yet fully satisfied with his grievances. He, therefore, decided to send another detailed letter to the emperor in which he neither promised nor refused to go to the Deccan to meet him. This letter, called “Zafar Nameh” (The Epistle of Victory) was written in Persian verse and sent from Dina in 1705 A.D. through two Sikhs, Bhai Daya and Bhai Dharam Singh of Agra. It was intentionally not entrusted to the emperor’s messengers because of the nature of its contents and also because the Guru wanted to know the emperor’s immediate reaction on reading it from his own confidant Sikhs.
“On receiving the Zafarnama, the emperor had a letter written to his minister, Muniam Khan, in Delhi and sent it through Mohd. Beg (mace-bearer) and Sheikh Yar Mohd. (munsibdar). In that letter, the emperor wrote to the minister that he should try to make the Guru agree to come to Delhi and then apprise him of the imperial order. Then he should arrange to send him (the Guru), along with a munsibdar, to the emperor.
“It was also written in the letter that when the Guru might reach Sirhind, Muniam Khan should depute a known person to accompany him and see him safely through that area. Muniam Khan was also instructed to keep the Guru in good humor and give him as much money as he needed for the journey, from out of his confiscated property”.
It is possible that the gist of this letter might have been communicated to the Guru by Muniam Khan in order to make him agreeable to come to Delhi. But the Guru was not willing to go to Delhi yet, although he had come to know, directly or indirectly, about the change in the emperor’s attitude. That seemed to have been the basis of the Guru’s telling Dalla that he would camp outside the town of Sabo Ki Talwandi, as there might be some further occasion to fight with the Mughals.
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