10 Sikh Gurus
Sikhism is a devout religion founded by Guru Nanak Dev in the Punjab region of South Asia in the 15th century. It is the fifth-largest religion in the world in terms of the number of believers. The philosophy of Sikhism is called Gurmat which is based on belief in God which is represented by an Oankaar (meaning one God). Sikhs do not believe in heaven or hell.
Before his death, Guru Nanak appointed one of his Sikhs as the second Guru and entrusted him with the task of guiding the Sikh community. This tradition continued till the Tenth Guru, Gobind Singh (1666-1708) who established the Khalsa on Baisakhi 1699 AD and gave a distinct identity to the Sikhs; He baptized five Sikhs and named them Panj Pyare, after which the Guru himself baptized them at his request. Guru Gobind Singh ended the tradition of appointing human successor by establishing Guru Granth Sahib on the highest seat and living Guru before ascending the Sach Khand.
The largest number of Sikhs live in Punjab, India and in addition, there are large numbers of Sikhs in Punjab, Pakistan, Canada, USA, UK, etc. European and other countries.
Sikh Gurus – Their Birth (Parkash) and Ascension
In tradition, the words Birth, and Death are less likely to be used for Sikh Gurus. A Sikh firmly believes that his Guru is never born, never dies. So we use the words Parkash and Joti Jot for Birth and Death of Physical Embodiment of Gurus. Starting from Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji in 1469, Guruship remained till the ascension of Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji in 1708. We have Prepared a List for 10 Gurus – Their Birth, Birth Place, Ascension – Date & Place of Joti Jot.
Sikh Gurus – Their Families
List of 10 Sikh Gurus – Their Real Names before Guruship, Parents Detail, Mahal (Spouse Name), and Detail of Children. Gurus have been married once mostly except Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji, Guru Har Rai Ji, and Guru Gobind Singh Ji. All Added from First Nanak to 10th Nanak, Gurughar bore 27 Children. 6 of them were given Gurgaddi, rest has their own places in history.
Sikh Gurus and Their Part in Sri Guru Granth Sahib
It is not appropriate to call Sri Guru Granth Sahib as Holy Book of Sikhs as It has been established as the living Guru of Sikhs. Sri Guru Granth Sahib was first compiled as Pothi Sahib by Sri Guru Arjan Dev Ji with the inclusion of Gurbani created by 5 Gurus. Baani of 9th Guru and 1 Shloka of Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji were later added while re-compiling the Aadi Granth as Damdami Bir by 10th Master himself. Below is a List of Gurus with Detail of the Number of Shabads or Shlokas written by them that are included in Sri Guru Granth Sahib.
1. Guru Nanak Dev Ji
Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji founded the Sikh faith. He proclaimed the divine word for indivisible nature of god ‘Ik Oankar’ and gave the world lofty “Mool Mantar”
2. Guru Angad Dev Ji
Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji created and Introduced the Gurmukhi Script. He started the tradition of “Mall Akhada” and expanded the institution of Langar.
3. Guru Amar Dass Ji
He took up cudgels against the restrictions placed by the caste system and the custom of purdah. He introduced new customs for birth and death ceremonies.
4. Guru Ram Dass Ji
Guru Ka Chak or Ram Dass Pura which later became the focal point for the Sikh Tradition with name Amritsar Sahib was founded by the Fourth Master.
5. Guru Arjan Dev Ji
Guru Arjan compiled the Adi Granth or Pothi Sahib, completed the construction of Harmandir Sahib and became the first martyr in the Sikh Tradition.
6. Guru Hargobind Ji
He was the first Saint Soldier among Sikh Gurus. Took up 2 swords of Miri and Piri, constructed Akal Takht – a symbolic of Raj Satta and Throne of the Eternal God.
7. Guru Har Rai Ji
Devoted himself to further spread the teachings of Guru Nanak, excommunicated his son Ram Rai from Sikhi for manipulating a word of Gurbani in from of Aurangzeb.
8. Guru Har Krishan Ji
Bala Preetam Guru Ji enabled a mute person to translate the Gita, left his body at a very young age while healing people of Delhi during the Chickenpox pandemic.
9. Guru Tegh Bahadur
Guru Ji established Anandpur Sahib – the Haven of Bliss. He made supreme sacrifice to protect the Hindus, accepted execution instead of converting to Islam.
10. Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh re-created Adi Granth and passed Guruship to Guru Granth Sahib, Established Khalsa Panth, and fought many wars, Sacrificed his 4 children to protect the faith.
Ten Sikh Gurus - There Birth & Date of Ascension
|Patshahi||Name||Birth||Birth Place||Joti Jot||Joti Jot Place|
|First||Guru Nanak Dev||15-04-1469||Rai Bhoi Di Talwandi, Delhi Sultanat||22-09-1539||Kartarpur, Mughal Empire|
|Second||Guru Angad Dev||31-03-1504||Matte Di Sarai, Muktsar, Panjab||29-03-1552||Khadur Sahib, Tarn Taran|
|Third||Guru Amar Dass||05-05-1479||Basarke, Punjab||01-09-1574||Goindwal Sahib, Punjab|
|Fourth||Guru Ram Dass||24-09-1534||Chuna Mandi Lahore||01-09-1581||Goindwal Sahib, Punjab|
|Fifth||Guru Arjan Dev||15-04-1563||Goindwal, Taran Taran||30-05-1606||Lahore, Punjab|
|Sixth||Guru Hargobind Sahib||19-06-1595||Guru Ki Wadali, Amritsar||28-02-1644||Kiratpur Sahib, Punjab|
|Seventh||Guru Har Rai||16-01-1630||Kiratpur Sahib||06-10-1661||Kiratpur Sahib, Punjab|
|Eighth||Guru Har Krishan||07-07-1656||Kiratpur Sahib||30-03-1664||Delhi|
|Ninth||Guru Tegh Bahadur||21-04-1621||Amritsar Sahib||24-11-1675||Delhi|
|Tenth||Guru Gobind Singh||22-12-1666||Patna Sahib, Bihar||07-10-1708||Nanded, Maharashtra|
Family Details of 10 Sikh Gurus
|Guru||Real Name||Father Name||Mother Name||Spouse||Children|
|1||Nanak||Kalyan Dass||Mata Tripta Devi||Mata Sulakhni||Baba Sri Chand, Baba Lakhmi Dass|
|2||Lehna||Pheru Mal||Mata Ramo||Mata Khivi||Baba Dasu, Baba Dattu, Bibi Amro, Bibi Anokhi|
|3||Amar Das||Tej Bhan||Mata Lachhmi||Mata Mansa Devi||Bhai Mohan, Bhai Mohri, Bibi Dani, Bibi Bhani|
|4||Jetha Mal||Hari Das||Mata Daya||Mata Bhani||Baba Prithi Chand, Baba Mahan Dev, Guru Arjan Dev|
|5||Arjan Dev||Guru Ram Dass||Mata Bhani||Mata Ganga||Guru Hargobind Sahib|
|6||Hargobind||Guru Arjan Dev||Mata Ganga||Mata Nanaki||Baba Gurdita, Baba Suraj Mal, Baba Ani Rai, Baba Atal Rai, Guru Tegh Bahadur, Bibi Veero|
|7||Har Rai||Baba Gurditta||Mata Nihal Kaur||Mata Krishan Devi||Baba Ram Rai, Guru Harkrishan|
|8||Kishan Das||Guru Har Rai||Mata Krishan||None||None|
|9||Tyag Mal||Guru Hargobind Sahib||Mata Nanaki||Mata Gujri||Guru Gobind Singh|
|10||Gobind Rai||Guru Tegh Bahadur||Mata Gujri||Mata Jito, Mata Sundari, Mata Sahib Devan||Ajit Singh, Jujhar Singh, Zorawar Singh, Fateh Singh, Entire Khalsa Panth|
Gurbani Creation by 10 Gurus
|Guru Nanak Dev||1469-1539||974 Shabads in 19 Ragas, Gurbani Includes Japji, Sidh Gohst, Sohilaa, Dakhni Onkar, Asa di Var, Patti, Bara Mah|
|Guru Angad Dev||1539-1552||63 Shlokas|
|Guru Amar Dass||1552–1574||869 Shabads in 17 Ragas [Anand, Patti, 4 Vaars in Goojri Soohi Ramkali and Maaru Raga]|
|Guru Ram Dass||1574-1581||638 Shabads in 30 Ragaas [8 Vaars Siri, Gaurhi, Bihagda, Vadhans, Sorath, Bilawal, Sarang, Kanra Raga + Ghodian, Karhale, Banjara, and 4 Laavan]|
|Guru Arjan Dev||1581-1606||2312 Shabads in 30 Ragas [Sukhmani, Barah Maah, 52 Akhri, Gunvanti, 6 Vaars in Gaurhi, Goojri, Jaitsari, Ramkali, Maaru & Basant]|
|Guru Hargobind Sahib||1606-1644|
|Guru Har Rai||1644–1661|
|Guru Har Krishan||1661-1664|
|Guru Tegh Bahadur||1664-1675||116 Shabad (15 Ragas) including Shloks of Bhog.|
|Guru Gobind Singh||1675-1708||1 Shabad in GGS, Dasam Granth Sahib [Akaal Ustat, Jaap Sahib, Chandi Di Vaar, Bachittar Natak, Chaupai, Tav-prasad Svaiyye]|